CURRENT HORTICULTURE <p> The Society for Horticultural Research and Development (SHRD), Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh, India), came into existence on 22 May 2013 and subsequently registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The primitive idea of the SHRD was nurtured by Dr. Gautam Kalloo, Prof, P L Saroj, Dr. T Janakiram, Dr. Balraj Singh, Dr. Vishal Nath, Dr. B S Tomar, Dr. Arvind K Singh, Dr. P K Singh, Dr. J K Ranjan etc.</p> <p> The Society is fully committed to the furtherance of all research and developmental activities, including education in all branches of horticultural sciences. The main aim of the society is to spread horticultural science among all stakeholders, consisting of students, scientists, researchers, research managers, policy-makers, farmers, entrepreneurs, etc. who can reconcile horticultural science as an organized industry. The society has grown to a different stature and provided a vibrant platform for research under the National Agricultural Research System, globally the biggest arena, India is blessed with.</p> <p> The decision to start a research journal was a milestone decision of the society, with the result, the journal popularly known as <strong><em>Current Horticulture</em></strong>, took its origin into reality. The journal is dedicated towards the advancement of Horticultural Science. The Journal got the NAAS rating of 4.53, it is going to be enhanced very soon. The objectives of the <strong><em>Current Horticulture</em></strong> are: advancement of basic and fundamental research in horticultural science amongst horticulturists, and to promote scientific exchange and interaction amongst researchers in a mission-mode module.</p> <p> The SHRD entered into a new role by convening its maiden academic events, the first edition being the <strong>Indian Horticulture Summit-2020, </strong>held at the Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh, and the <strong>2<sup>nd</sup> Indian Horticulture Summit-2022 </strong>at the Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. Both the Summits have been grand success in the dissemination of horticultural science among stakeholders across the country.</p> <p> The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, and other Government scientific organizations sponsored an adequate amount of grants for convening the Summits. Now, our society is going to organize its <strong>3<sup>rd</sup> Indian Horticulture Summit-2024 on</strong><strong> Technological Intervention for Boosting Horticultural Production </strong>at Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. With the perpetual demand and popularity of SHRD, this Summit will be an<strong> International event.</strong></p> <p> Recognizing the labour-yielding significant contribution of horticulturists in various branches of horticultural science, the Society instituted different awards. The awards are:</p> <ul> <li>Dr. Gautam Kalloo Award for Excellence in Horticultural Research</li> <li>Lifetime Achievements Award in R&amp; D in Horticultural Sciences</li> <li>Leadership Excellence Award in Horticultural Research</li> <li>Distinguished Horticultural Scientist Award</li> <li>SHRD Best Thesis Award in Horticulture</li> <li>Young Horticultural Scientist Award</li> <li>Outstanding Horticultural Scientist Award</li> <li>Shri Kamala Rai Memorial Best Innovative Farmer/Entrepreneur Award in Horticulture</li> <li>Choudhary Gangasharan Tyagi Memorial Best Farmer/Entrepreneur Award in Horticulture</li> <li>Honorary Fellow of the Society</li> <li>Fellow of the Society and</li> <li>Best research paper published in <strong><em>Current Horticulture</em></strong> Award</li> </ul> <p>The recipients of these awards are judged by our high-profile committees.</p> <p>Thus, I sincerely hope that SHRD will gain more popularity and distinction in the years ahead.</p> <p><strong>Dr Som Dutt</strong></p> en-US <p>The copyright of the articles published in <em>CURRENT HORTICULTURE</em> is vested with the Society for Horticultural Research and Development (SHRD), which reserves the right to enter into any agreement with any organization in India or abroad, for reprography, photocopying, storage and dissemination of information. The SHRD has no objection to using the material, provided the information is not being utilized for commercial purposes and wherever the information is being used, proper credit is given to SHRD.</p> (Dr. Som Dutt) (Administrator) Tue, 27 Feb 2024 05:49:33 +0000 OJS 60 Impact of temperature aberration in fruits crops: a review <p>Climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being and have impact on horticultural crops, due to erratic temperature regime, rainfall, more demand for water and enhanced abiotic stresses. Changes in plant phenology are one of the earliest responses to rapid global climate change and could potentially have serious consequences for fruit crops that depend on temperature and rainfall. However, the changes will not be only harmful, as CO2 concentration may enhance faster photosynthesis and increased temperature may hasten the process of maturity. An increasing temperature affects photosynthesis directly, causing alterations in sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids contents, firmness and antioxidant activity. Hence, there is a need to protect these valuable crops for sustainability against the climate change scenario.<br>Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant growth and development, therefore, it influences the life cycle of fruit plants in various ways. The low temperature kills the plant tissues by freezing. Whereas, most plant tissues can be destroyed by freezing temperatures suddenly imposed during a period of growth and development. In freeze susceptible plant tissues, free water freezes forming crystals that disrupt cell membranes, whereas in freeze-resistant tissues the water is bound in the form of hydrophilic colloids. Pollination is also most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes. During such developmental stages, temperature extremes would greatly affect fruit production. Adverse effect of high temperature can be seen during both vegetative and reproductive growth stages in various fruit crops. The changes in gene expression that occur with cold acclimation contribute to increased freezing tolerance. The proper method of frost/freeze protection must be chosen by each crop for a particular site. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to discuss and brought together the latest scientific information regarding climate change impact on physiology of fruit crops under varied climatic conditions.</p> A K Singh, P P Singh, DS Mishra, Gngadhara K, Jagdish Rane Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hyperspectral imaging/reflectance as a tool for assessment of nutritional and quality-related parameters in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits - a review <p>Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is most important vegetable crop for human health. The postharvest handling and management of tomato is prime concern in India because the annual postharvest losses for tomato can reach up to 25 - 40 %. Non-destructive approaches for quantification and monitoring of nutritional and quality aspects of horticultural commodities have come up in a big way in the recent past that can also serves towards better postharvest management. Out of various non-destructive approaches, optical method based on visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy (hyperspectral imaging and reflectance) is the most important analytical tool that provides spatial and spectral information simultaneously for a commodity towards non-destructive assessment of food quality-related parameters. Therefore, an overview with latest developments and applications of hyperspectral imaging and reflectance techniques for assessment of nutritional and quality parameters of tomato fruits have been discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of this tool along with the future perspectives are also highlighted.</p> Rajeev Kumar, Vijay Paul, Rakesh Pandey Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Precision viticulture: a review <p>The precision viticulture aims to optimize grape (Vitis spp. L.) vineyard management; reducing use of resources and environmental impacts; and maximizing quality yield. New technologies as UAVs, satellites, proximal sensors, variable rate machines (VRT) and robots are being developed and used more frequently in some parts of the world in recent years. Developments and abilities of computers, software and informatic systems to read, analyze, process and transfer a huge amount of data are major milestones in precision viticulture. In addition, different decision support systems (DSSs) for making better crop management decisions at the right time also assist vine growers. In the fragmented small vineyards in India, relatively cheaper technologies like UAV, proximal monitoring through various tools, and DSSs developed by the ICAR-NRC for Grapes, Pune, Maharashtra, India can be used by individual grape grower or through farmers’ cooperatives/groups to make grape cultivation technologically-, economically- and environmentally- viable. Therefore, current status of precision viticulture technologies and their potential applications in viticulture, have been discussed.</p> R G Somkuwar, Sharmistha Naik Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bulb preservation influenced by various temperature and media on flower and bulb production in Lilium (Lilium spp.) <p>The experiment was conducted with three levels each of storage temperature (2.1-2.50c, 6.5-7.50c and 8.0-10°c) and preservation media (sawdust, cocodust and combination of both in equal quantities) from June 2019 to May 2020 at Floriculture Division, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh, to find out the optimum storage temperature and suitable media for Lilium (Lilium spp.) bulb preservation and also to see their effect on flower and bulb production in the next flowering season. The bulbs under cool temperature (2.1-2.50c) with sawdust produced minimum sprout (22.0%), shorter root (3.25cm) and shoot (0.55cm) and gained the minimum weight 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after storage (1.42, 2.35, 3.07 and 3.20%, respectively) which ultimately protected bulbs from deterioration during storage period. The two other temperature (6.5-7.50c and 8.0-10.00c) including all media produced 100% sprouting and poor performance in other parameters. Though non-significant variations were recorded in flower, bulb and bulblet production from bulbs kept in storage in relation to combination of temperature and media but bulbs preserved in various media at cool temperature (2.10c-2.50c) showed better performances on growth, flowering, bulb and bulblet production in next flowering season.</p> Farjana N Khan, K Ambia, A Naznin, MMR Bhuiyin, MT Rashid Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and biochemical changes in avocado (Persea americana) during ripening <p>A study was carried out on the morphological and physiological changes in avocado during ripening at ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru. A promising genotype (IC-0626510) having a large sized green fruits with yield potential of 281 fruits/year was used. Increased weight loss was induced at different stages of ripening from maturity to ripening showing weight loss (11.13% on 8th day) without any change in size of the fruit (9.15 cm x 8.23 cm). At ripening mean pulp recovery &gt;75%, TSS 4.42 °Brix, 38.5%fat, 79.9% moisture, 30g/100g carbohydrate, 4.4% protein and 22.6% fibre was recorded. However firmness of fruits reduced considerably without change in fruit (light green) and pulp colour (creamy-white). There was no incidence of anthracnose on fruits throughout the period of study indicating that fruits of promising genotype are tolerant to anthracnose disease.</p> P C Tripathi, Anuradha Sane, A Shamina, S. Sriram, Nesara Begane Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation studies in avocado (Persea americana) accessions for morphological and biochemical characters <p>The correlation coefficients were estimated for different morphological and biochemical traits in 83 avocado (Persea americana Mill.) accessions of South India. The fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, pulp weight and seed weight showed highly significant positive correlations with fruit yield, while peel per cent showed negative correlation with fruit yield. These traits can be utilized for selection of high-yielding genotypes. The total phenols content has positive correlation with DPPH antioxidant activity. The dry-matter content of pulp showed highly significant positive correlation with oil content of fresh and dry pulp, while moisture content in pulp showed negative correlation with oil content of fresh pulp. The dry-matter content and moisture content of pulp can be utilized for selection of high oil-yielding accessions.</p> B M Muralidhara, R Venugopalan, T Sakthivel, G Karunakaran, M K Honnabyraiah, Siddanna Savadi Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and physiological responses of CMD resistant cassava (Manihot esculenta) genotypes to nutrient regimes <p>The field studies were carried out on cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties resistant to cassava mosaic disease (V1-CR43-2, V2-15 S 59, V3-15 S 409 , V4-15 S 154, V5-CR43-7, V6-8S 501-2, V7-CR24-4, V8- 15S-436) and three levels of nutrient doses (F1-75:50:75, F2- 100:50:100 and F3- 125:50:125 kg NPK/ha) in spilt plot design during 2018-19 and 2019-20 to assess the response of varieties to nutrition. There was significant difference in morphological and physiological parameters among varieties, but not with different nutrient doses. The rate of leaf production was more 4-6 months after planting (34-40%) and percentage retention was less for first season crop (55.6-41.4%) compared to second season (77.2-52.5 %). Though not significant, higher nutrition levels recorded more number of green leaves as well as leaf area at most of the stages. Tuber bulking rate was 0.19 - 0.37 g/day during initial two months. The rate increased and maximum bulking was recorded between 4 and 8 months (2.15-6.71 g/day). Pooled analysis also showed a gradual increase in tuber yield with nutrient levels, but was not significant (7%). The varieties responded differently to nutrients with respect to tuber yield. F3 recorded higher tuber yield (66.9 t/ha) than F1 (45.7 t/ha) in V7 and V6 recorded highest tuber yield with F2 level of nutrition (71.1 t/ha). F1 was found optimum for rest of the varieties.</p> S Sunitha, M N Sheela, J Suresh Kumar, T Makeshkumar Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of light-emitting diodes on somatic embryogenesis and tissue-cultured plantlet growth of arecanut (Areca catechu) dwarf hybrid VTLAH-2 <p>This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of LEDs on embryogenic callus proliferation, somatic embryo formation and tissue cultured plantlet growth of arecanut (Areca catechu L.) dwarf hybrid (VTLAH-2) at ICAR-CPCRI, Kasaragod, Kerala, during 2021-2022. Yellow, red, blue, white monochromatic LEDs, and a combination of red: blue and blue: yellow with different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs 10, 20 and 100 μmol m-2s-1) were used. Eeuwen’s Y3 basal media supplemented with picloram 2.5 μM were used for multiplication of calli. Embryogenic calli were inoculated to multiplication media, and these plates were kept under different LED conditions to examine calli multiplication and somatic embryogenesis. To check the growth of plantlets, germinated somatic embryos were transferred to test tubes containing arecanut plantlet growing media (i.e., 0.5 mg/L BAP +0.5 mg/L NAA and +0.25 mg/L IBA with Y3 basal medium. Multiplication rate of arecanut embryogenic calli (0.051±0.008 gg-1d-1), somatic embryo formation (46.1±2.9), plantlet growth (RGR-wt.0.9±0.07 gg-1d-1; RGR-ht: 0.57±0.01 and survival (61.4±4.3%) were found to be superior under a combination of red-yellow LED, which was followed by blue and yellow monochromatic LEDs. Whereas comparatively lower callus multiplication (0.008±0.001 gg-1d-1) and plantlet growth (RGR-wt: 0.72±0.03 gg-1d-1; RGR-ht: 0.24±0.12 was noticed with white and red LEDs with a PPFD values of 100 μmol m-2s-1 and 20 μmol m-2s-1 consecutively. Thus, there was a positive effect of LED light source on arecanut somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth.</p> Aparna Veluru, K. Devakumar, M. Neema, Sandip Shil, N.R. Nagaraja, Anitha Karun Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of pre-harvest application of growth regulators on yield and quality of elephant- foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) during storage <p>The effect of pre-harvest application of growth regulators on yield and quality of elephant-foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Dennst.) was studied during storage at Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore during 2017-18. Thirteen pre-harvest treatments with cycocel, ethrel and kinetin were used individually and in combination with ridomil at different concentrations 15 and 30 days before harvesting. The combination of cycocel @ 500 ppm + ridomil @ 0.5% sprayed 30 days before harvesting recorded highest mean corm weight (820.60 g) and yield 36.70 tonnes/ha. After harvesting, corms were stored in well-ventilated dry room with relative humidity of 60-75 %. There was a significant loss in corm weight, starch content, dry matter and oxalate content during storage. The corm weight was significantly higher in T8 (791.60 g), followed by T11 (773.30 g) and T2 (686.10 g) after 6 months of storage. There was no significant loss in starch and dry-matter content in corms in all treatments during storage. The starch content ranged from 8.96 to 10.20% and dry-matter content from 21.50 to 25.25%. The oxalate content was significantly lower in T8 (115.5 mg/100g), followed by T2 (120 mg/100g) and T9 (123 mg/100g).</p> C Indu Rani, R Neelavathi Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of growing environment on graft compatibility and its success in cucurbits <p>The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of growing environment on graft compatibility and its success in cucurbits, at Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Belagavi district, Karnataka, during kharif 2018-19 and rabi 2019-20 seasons. Among both growing environments (open field and shade net condition), field transplanted grafted plants did not survive 20 days after grafting, hence study was continued to know the performance of grafted plants under shade net condition. Graft compatibility and its success was significantly influenced by different cucurbitaceous rootstocks and scions. Significant and maximum graft success (89.33 and 96.33 %), maximum vine length (227.30 and 269.91cm 40 DAG), minimum number of days to first and 50 % sprouting, final girth of graft union (16.36, 20.04, 13.37, 16.39 at 60 &amp; 90 DAG), node number to first female flower appearance (19.14, 8.28) and days to first female flower appearance (33.15, 45.62) were noticed in Momordica charantia L. and Luffa acutangula L. scions grafted on Cucurbita moschata L. and Trichosathes cucumerina L. rootstocks during both seasons and there was non-significant difference between two seasons.</p> Deepa Adiveppa Holer, N Basavaraja, C N Hanchinamani, Sandhyarani Nishani, Satish D, Ambika D S Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of frontline demonstration on yield and economics of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Dungarpur district of Rajasthan <p>The frontline demonstration on okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.] was conducted on 70 ha during 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 at farmers’ fields in tribal area of Dungarpur district of Rajasthan. A total of 350 demonstrations were conducted on 350 farmers fields’ with package of practices. The average yield was obtained 145.9, 147.5, 148.6 and 150.2 q/ha under demonstrated practice, whereas in farmers practice it was 102.2, 103.1, 102.6 and 103.4q/ha yield during summer season of 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019, respectively. An average on technology gap of four years frontline demonstration programme was 3.95qha. The per cent increase in yield with high-yielding over local variety was 42.76 to 45.26 per cent. The extension gap recorded was 43.7, 44.4, 46.0 and 46.8 q/ha during all years. An average technology index was 2.60 per cent during all the four years, showing the efficacy of technical interventions. The demonstrated practice also gave higher gross return, net return with higher benefit: cost ratio compared to farmers practice.</p> Madan Lal Choudhary, R.A. Kaushik, M. C. Bhateshwar Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Variability assessment in fruits of seedling origin guava (Psidium guajava) <p>The experiment was conducted to assess variation among existing guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees of seedling origin. A total of 60 healthy and bearing trees were marked for studies during 2017-18 at RHR&amp;TS, Dhaulakuan, Himachal Pradesh. There was variation in fruit shape (round to pyriform), colour of fruit skin (yellow, yellow white and yellow green) and fruit shape at stalk end (rounded to broadly rounded). The variation in fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, length/width ratio, number of seeds/fruit, fruit yield, yield efficiency, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars were 65.22-128.57g, 4.40-6.18, 4.90-6.51, 0.87-1.31cm, 12-411, 16.0-34.8kg/tree, 2.27-24.6g/cm2, 7.35-11.83oBrix, 0.270-0.627%, 138.19-249.43mg/100g, 5.13-8.38%, 3.22-5.44% and 1.81-2.83%, respectively. Out of 60 trees, four were designated as “elite” based on overall distinct attributes. The identification of one seedless (tree No. 22), one approximate seedless (tree No. 21), two red fleshed genotypes (tree No. 57 and tree No. 58) having desirable traits was a significant finding.</p> Murari Lal Chopra, Krishan Kumar, Vikas, Megha Ahir, Priynka Kumari Jat, Heerendra Prasad Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 GA3 priming, biopriming and hydropriming effect on quality nursery production of China aster (Callistephus chinensis) <p>The study was carried out at Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, on China aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees] cv ‘Poornima’ and ‘Kamini’ in nursery under open field conditions in randomized block design (factorial) comprising eight seed priming treatments, viz. control, hydropriming with water, priming with GA3 (50, 100 and 150 ppm) and biopriming with Trichoderma viride @ 1× 104 cfu/ml, 1× 105 cfu/ml and 1× 106 cfu/ml for 24 hr. There was maximum speed of germination (18.97, 21.58), germination percentage (83.17, 86.33 %), root length (2.87, 2.93 cm), shoot length (6.39, 6.59 cm), seedling length (9.26, 9.52 cm), seedling dry weight (227.67, 248.30 mg), seed vigour index-I (769.89, 822.19), seed vigour index-II (18,934.33, 21,436.62); minimum time taken to seed germination (12.72, 11.33 days) and days required to reach 4-6 leaf stage (23.70, 22.33 days) with priming treatment GA3 (100 ppm) in Poornima and Kamini, respectively. Hence, it is concluded that seeds of Kamini treated with GA3 (100 ppm) for 24 hr obtained best results for most of the desirable character for quality nursery production of China aster.</p> Shabnam Pangtu, Puja Sharma, SR Dhiman, Prashant Sharma, Divesh Thakur Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of PGRs on growth, reproductive efficiency, and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in arid regions <p>An experiment was conducted during rabi, 2021-22 at College of Agriculture, Jodhpur to assess the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the growth, flowering, and fruiting characteristics; and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in a randomized block design with three replications comprising 10 treatments. Three levels each of GA3, 4-CPA, and NAA along with control were used. There was maximum plant height (47.2 cm, 61.3 cm, and 80.9 cm at 45 DAT, 60 DAT, and final harvesting, respectively), number of branches (19.4/plant), leaf area (30.6 cm2), TSS (5.41˚Brix) and ascorbic acid (22.8 mg/100g) over the control with GA3@75 ppm, whereas minimum acidity (0.46 %) was recorded with NAA@75 ppm. The significantly higher fruit length (6.7 cm), fruit diameter (7.2cm), and fruit firmness (2.6 kg/cm2) were recorded with 4-CPA@75 ppm. The maximum number of fruit clusters (12.0/plant), number of flowers (5.4/cluster), number of fruits (3.2/cluster), number of fruits (38.1/plant), fruit setting (59.7%), fruit weight (84.3 g) and lycopene content (6.5 mg/100g) were observed with NAA@75 ppm.</p> Suman Poonia, Santosh Choudhary, S. K. Moond, Moola Ram, Ronak Kuri Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Weather-based yield prediction in banana (Musa spp.) by using principal component analysis <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> B. Ajith Kumar, Haritha Lekshmi V. Copyright (c) 2024 CURRENT HORTICULTURE Tue, 27 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000